Pneumologia Vol. 65 Nr. 4
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Copyright Romanian Society of Pneumology
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In the last 25 years, there have been several improvements in computed tomography (CT) that might give more details on the structure of lung parenchyma in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), on the main phenotypes or even on lung function.
Tracheobronchial foreign body aspiration is one of the commonest causes of death in young children under the age of 3(1). Acute aspiration of a foreign body is considered an emergency and, therefore, requires immediate treatment. Regardless of the possibility of lodging in the bronchus, it could be easily dislodged into the trachea or the larynx, causing complete obstruction(2). In young children, the event is suspected only when a chocking episode is witnessed by an adult.
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the world with an increasing incidence(1). Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) defines COPD as a disease that can be prevented and marked by a progressive and partial irreversible obstruction of the air passage and also has a correlation to pulmonary inflammation as a response to a particle or noxious agents(2).
Silicosis is an occupational lung disease caused by the inhalation and accumulation of crystalline silica particles in the lung. Silicosis is the most prevalent type of pneumoconiosis(1,2). Some complications may be related to silicosis, but pleural involvement is rare.
According to UNAIDS, 42 million people in the world have HIV infection. Unprotected sex is the main method of transmission of HIV in patients newly diagnosed with the disease. Voluntary counseling and testing may cause changes in the sexual behavior of individuals, prompting them to use condoms, thereby reducing the rate of infection. Globally, undiagnosed and late stage diagnosed HIV infection is a feature of many epidemics in the developed world.
Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is a respiratory disorder which occurs during sleep(1) and is manifested by repeated episodes of upper airway obstruction which reduce (hypopnea) or stop (apnea) the oro-nasal air flow resulting in shallow and poor quality sleep. OSAS has an influence on the quality of life and the professional activity by affecting alertness and performance, increasing the risk of traffic accidents, and doubling the general risk of work accidents(2,3).
Problems of smoking control:
Smoking is a major public health problem with a strong social and emotional determinism. After 1990, in Romania, the number of smokers, especially among young people, has increased dramatically, a phenomenon which may be linked to the increased saturation in the new market economy and to the excessive mediatization of tobacco products while legal regulations that limited tobacco consumption were practically nonexistent.
Letters to the editor:
The Fontan procedure is today the last staged operation for children with congenital heart disease who cannot be offered a 2-ventricle repair, and it refers to any operation that results in the flow of systemic venous blood to the lungs without passing through a ventricle(1).
Effective tobacco smoking cessation drugs are most needed in low- and middle-income countries, where tobacco consumption is very prevalent, and the access to first line medicines is more problematic than in high income ones. A very recent editorial, authored by some of the leading world experts in the treatment of tobacco addiction(1), clearly describes cytisine (CY), an alpha4 beta2 nicotinic partial agonist receptor with the same mechanism of action as varenicline, as one of the most efficient drugs used for smoking cessation.
Every year, in late fall, the reddish gold colour of October leaves brings a new experience: the symposium held in Vama. In the panorama of Romanian respiratory medicine, it’s like listening to Bob Dylan after a classical music concert. Equally interesting, but different. Organised by the always on-the-run Tudor Toma (MD), coming from the Lewisham Hospital in London, the 8th Edition of the Romanian - English Symposium (October 27-29, 2016) had the theme “Vital protocols for breathing disorders”.